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Essay on Migration in China

China is the most populous country in the world with 1.4 billion people as at December 2017. This figure is equivalent to 18.54% of the total global population. Over the years, the country has transformed itself into a leading global economy. Currently, it is the second largest economy in the world. Over the years, the Chinese government has relocated sections of its population as part of the poverty-reduction programme.

In 2001, the government embarked on a nationwide programme of moving populations from environmentally-fragile areas. The aim of the relocation was to accelerate the process of poverty-eradication in poor regions. Similarly in 1984, the Chinese government launched an extensive displacement programmes in the north of the country as part of the measures to restore the ecosystem and eradicate poverty. Additionally, the government regarded parts of the northern mountainous province as crucial in terms of the country’s ecological and environmental wellbeing. The World Bank supported the Chinese central government in the 1984 relocations as part of its global environmental conservation drive. Over the last three decades, authorities in the Ningxia region of southern China have displaced about 700,000 peasants from drought-prone areas. The peasants, who had lived in the Ningxia province since historical times, faced imminent starvation as a result of recurrent draughts and scarcity of water. Although the government aimed to increase the wellbeing of the people through dislocations, research studies indicate that displacement policies can harm families. For example, families who moved from Ningxia to Yinchuan encountered challenges in accessing education, healthcare, and housing. Scholars have argues that most of the displacement policies in China are part of the government’s modernization policy. As a result, the government does not provide the targeted populations with any other options


Paper on Ethical Theories and Models

Part 1: Health Work sheet

Utilitarian Theory– The utilitarianism theory would ensure that the vaccine is administered to those at a higher chance of contracting the flu. However, caregivers may fail to consider people with terminal illness. Probably, they would be the last people to receive medication. Since it is vital to consider the greater good of the society, people who work towards economic growth would be one of the priority groups.

The rights-based theory – The theory would use the first come first served principle during the administration of the vaccine. Though the people behind the queue are in a dire need for the vaccine, they would not be immunized.

Duty-based ethics– The theory would imply that those who are already ill would be considered for treatment as compared to the healthy.

Justice-based– The theory would judge whether it is morally right to immunize people against the flu. Particularly, the theory examines the health implications of the process. For instance, healthy people are likely to contract the flue during the immunization procedures.

Virtue-based theory– The theorist would suggest that the healthcare givers should seek consent from the target population through a thorough explanation of the significance of the vaccination.

Part2: Principle Solution

Beneficence would be an ideal solution to the problem, as it ensures that the care givers engage the target population in the process of immunization. Both patient and healthy people have the right to consent and explanation on the reason for vaccination. Beneficence creates a room for consensus, where the interested parties come to a mutual understanding of issues. This principle promotes wellness and protects the community from any kind of harm, as health administrators determine the importance of the vaccination to the intended population.


Mass Incarceration in the U.S

The American prison system exists to keep citizens safe, punish criminals, and provide rehabilitation services whenever necessary. Over the years, the government has used prisons to serve more than just the above mentioned functions. The number of Americans who end up in prisons has increased in the last five decades. These changes were in part due to the creation of aggressive criminal laws passed by Congress. Today, American prisons are overcrowded. Worse, it is the people of color who make up a large portion of American convicts. Indeed, different ideas regarding the reasons for the overcrowding of American prisons abound. Critics of the prison system have cited the minimal benefits of keeping young men and women in prison. They have mentioned the costs to the taxpayer, the effect of jail terms on drug addicts, mentally ill, and families. At the same time, researchers have proposed various methods of dealing with mass incarceration in the country. Some have suggested a change of criminal laws, terms of sentences, more police on the streets, and medical help for drug addicts. Despite the different arguments presented by these researchers, they contend that mass incarceration does not reduce cases of crime in the country.

Why is the Theme Discussed?

Overcrowding in American prisons has triggered the debate over the effectiveness of mass incarceration. In the past, the U.S government proposed long sentences for criminals with the aim of reducing crime incidences in American communities. At the time, individuals without high school diplomas, decent jobs, and low income engaged in crime to provide for themselves and their families. Many of them ended up in prison for selling or using illegal drugs. The government hoped that such a move would help them tackle the drug problem in the country. However, the arrest and imprisonment of young Americans contributed to an increase in poverty in black communities. The men who were arrested were the sole providers of their families meaning that these families had one source of income. Worse, former convicts do not get employment opportunities easily because of their criminal record. Therefore, some of them revert to their old habits of selling drugs to keep up with their counterparts.

Connection with Current Problems

Mass incarceration is a practice that impedes poverty reduction efforts in the country. Research demonstrates that the number of Americans living in poverty would fall by over 20 percent if the government could reduce mass incarceration. Researchers have proven that 60 percent of former inmates remain unemployed one year after their release. Worse, many American adults have a criminal record that may show up during a background check. Research demonstrates that people without a criminal record gain employment even when they are not qualified for the position. Additionally, keeping people locked up in jails reduces their lifetime earnings, as well as intergenerational earnings. Employers tend to limit the incomes of former inmates. Reduced incomes present future problems for the incarcerated individuals along with their families. Worse, serving a jail term presents roadblocks for the affected individuals when seeking cash assistance from the government.

Supporting Arguments

The activities of the justice system in the country costs the taxpayer over 260 billion annually. The costs of mass incarceration grew by 400 percent over the last 30 years. Hard working Americans have to contribute towards the maintenance of these prisons. Many men and women spend a large part of their adulthood in prisons. Upon their release, these individuals have to deal with stigmatization, which reduces their chances of gaining employment. The effects of incarceration of men and women last a lifetime, especially for individuals from low income communities. The crime wave of the 1980’s contributed to the introduction of punitive measures in the judicial system. Tough crime policies in the 1980’s led to a disproportionate impact for people from low income communities. Legislatures of this era believed in punishing crime by either locking them up in prisons or putting them through rehabilitation programs (Arvanites & Asher, 1995). The fear of crime and unrest in the country contributed to the development of the mass incarceration in the country. These actions had far reaching effects on the people affected. Incarceration became the default setting rather than the last resort for the judicial system at the time. The move affected individuals with low income and those without high school diplomas.

Mass incarceration is a practice that threatens the democracy in the American society. It is a system of correction that drives poverty, racial injustice, and economic inequality among the incarcerated and their families. American prisons hold twenty five percent of the world’s prisoners. Most of these prisoners are black men who are separated from their families for many years. Once locked in these correctional facilities, black men cannot work and improve the living conditions of their families. Some of them leave behind women with more than one child. These women have to work long hours to earn enough money to pay rent, fees, and cater for other bills. As a result, poverty remains a problem in many black families in the country. Economic inequality becomes a reality when these black families cannot compete with their white counterparts.

Leaders can eliminate mass incarceration by adopting less punitive measures for low level offenses. The judicial system resorts to incarceration as the first mode of punishment for all types of offenses. Most state and federal prisoners are locked up for non-violent crimes. For instance, many jail mates spend time in prison while they await their sentencing. Others end up in prison for violating their conditions of their parole or probation. Over 1.7 million people spend their lives in prison without a public safety rationale. Indeed, punishment of crime is paramount if the government is tackle social crime in American communities. However, the severe punishment that criminals receive is not warranted. Researchers have provided ample evidence showing that these measures of correcting criminals are expensive and unnecessary. Instead, they recommend alternative actions that reduce recidivism.

The government should change criminal laws with the aim of removing prison as the only method of correcting non-violent offenders. Some of the most appropriate punishments for low level crimes include community service, probation, electronic monitoring, and rehabilitation. The correctional facilities should apply these measures to drug related crimes in the country. It is not efficient for the judicial system to send drug offenders to prison for many years. The main problem in such cases is the availability of drugs in the black communities meaning that they will continue with the practice of selling drugs once released. Although the process of changing criminal laws may take years, it is the only course of action that will reduce the number of youth wasting away in American prisons.

Individuals with addition and mental health problems require medical treatment and not time in prison. Half of the people who end in American prisons suffer from mental health issues or drug addiction. In fact, American cells hold more mentally ill people than institutions for the mentally challenged. Prisons do not help such people overcome their problems instead, incarceration worsens their condition. Treatment will ensure that people with mental health problems or drug addiction become useful members of society. They can recover, apply for employment opportunities, and help their families where possible. At the same time, these individuals require constant observation by probation officers to ensure that they recover fully. In some cases, they made need to spend some time in prison depending on the nature of the crime that they committed.


The act of deploying additional police officers to the streets prevents people from committing crime. The presence of more officers on the streets creates the perception that there is more at stake for committing a crime. Mass incarceration has failed to act as a deterrent to crime in society. Instead of reforming the lives of the convicts, it contributes to the creation of recidivism. In the 1990’s the levels of crime in the streets of New York reduced because of the presence of police men and women.

The main reason behind the prison boom was the desire of the government to control low income black communities that were excluded from the economic boom of the industrial era. The government did not want to tackle the problem of unemployment witnessed in these black communities. People engaged in social crime to realize the American Dream. Mass incarceration took root in the country because the government failed to deal with gun violence, economic marginalization, and mental illness. Instead, it created a judicial system where low level offenders wasted their lives in prisons. The government contributed to the problem of mass incarceration that is evident in society today.

The corrupt system managed by corrupt politicians contributed to the development of the problem of mass incarceration. Elected leaders in the political sphere have taken advantage of prisons to mollify fears regarding crimes in the country. On top of that, they have used these institutions to promote the resurgence of anti-civil rights politics. Undoubtedly, the problem of mass incarceration is one that benefits many people in the American society. Therefore, dealing with it requires transforming the social issues that black people have dealt with for many years. They are the ones affected the most by mass incarceration.


The process of writing that the author utilized in the book contradicted my personal beliefs regarding the debate over mass incarceration. Prior to reading the book, I had the perception that sentencing criminals to prison was the best method of tackling crime in communities. However, the author presented opposing views that helped me rethink my previous stand on the topic of mass incarceration. For instance, the writer presents the views of researchers who have proven that spending time in prison does not reduce social crime. Instead, it increases the odds of these criminals engaging in criminal activities upon their release. The researchers provide evidence showing that the chances of former convicts gaining employment are lower than those of law abiding citizens. Additionally, the author proves that keeping offenders in prison for committing low level crimes is an expensive venture.

The author goes on to provide the reader with alternative ways of dealing with offenders. It is not necessary for all offenders to end up in prison. Rather, the government can help them overcome their problems through other less expensive means. For example, the correctional facilities can put criminals through community service to help them become law abiding citizens. Community service helps these individuals appreciate the importance of working hard for an income and the joy that comes with earning a salary. Medical treatment is another remedy that correctional facilities can adopt in helping people with drug related problems. Sometimes, drug addicts need professional help to help them overcome the urge to sell and use drugs.

The problem of drug sale and use in American societies is not as simple as many perceive. Drug dealers gain entry into the country through the Mexico-American border. The government of Mexico has tried to deal with drug trafficking into U.S soil to no avail. Many people in black communities have access to these drugs. Whenever the police arrest these individuals, they do not help them reform. Instead, they withdraw them from society for a certain period of time. After serving their sentences, most of these convicts go back to selling drugs.

In conclusion, mass incarceration is an effective method of dealing with crime in a country as diverse as America. The act of sending all offenders to prison only results in overcrowding in American jails. Instead of helping criminals reform their lives, keeping them in prison only prevents them from committing new crimes and deters would be offenders from engaging in criminal activities.


Research on Rape Victims and their Rights

The 2018 presents a ray of hope for rape victims following the accusation, arrest, and indictments of high profile celebrities in the country. There are many prominent personalities in the history of the United States who have been accused of statutory, matrimonial rape, sexual assault, indecent harassment, and pedophilia but managed to escape imprisonment. Moreover, those who were sentenced received minimum jail sentences, which the victims regarded as lenient. However, the recent exposure of Bill Cosby, Polanski, and Harvey Weinstein sexual misconducts have provoked expansive conversations regarding sexual offence laws in the country. The complications with sexual litigations emanates from historical events that resulted to the creation of the Union. Slavery and colonization are irrefutably the major proponent of sexual violence in the country. There are limited literal texts that document this subject as an important aspect towards the development of the American society. According to the recorded medical reports, the nation experiences a sexual assault after 8 minutes. Moreover, only 0.6 % of cases are reported to law and policy authorities. In view of these findings, it is apparent that there is a need for increased awareness regarding the subject (Holmstrom, 2017). The purpose of these sexual activism programs must be to protect the rights and freedoms of both the victim and the alleged perpetrator as enshrined in the supreme constitution. Given the historically low number of indictments, many advocacy and help groups have emerged in the country to assist victims in processing civil or criminal litigations.

Case Summary

            The case involves a 20 years old rape encounter with her ex-boyfriend following a drinking spree. As a result of the circumstances encompassing the crime, the public prosecutor rejects the litigation. The prosecutor’s conclusion is probably informed by confounding environment of the alleged offence. Some of the factors that complicates the incidence includes previous encounter between the complainant and the perpetrator, the supposed condition in which the crime occurred, and lack of sufficient evidence to indict the culprit (Michael Planty et al., 2016). Assumedly, there must be witnesses from the drinking hole who witnessed the social conduct of the couple. In addition to the effects of alcohol, the defendant’s attorney would probably argue that sex between the two was consensual. Although the rape crime happen, the burden of proof remains with the victim. On his part, the accused can present a narrative demonstrating that there was a prior mutual agreement between the two. In fact, He could even present a phone or other physical evidence to illustrate how the two rekindled their relationship. Furthermore, since both the victim and the charged were drunk, it would be difficult to prove that the sexual urges only emanated from the man. From a scientific perspective, alcohol inhibits cognitive reasoning and functions, thus, promoting a carefree and reckless attitude. As the effects of alcohol subsides, victims are usually engulfed with regrets, remorse, and even denial.

            The United States laws on rape confers the greatest liability and responsibilities to the victim. For instance, after a rape incidence, the casualty is supposed to report the matter immediately. The aim of this rule is to preserve evidence that can be used for the prosecution of the perpetrators. Some of the proof of crime includes the used condom, torn clothes, site of the incident, and physical signs involved during the struggle. However, rape is among the greatest atrocities to human dignity and wellbeing. Rape incidents affect the victims physically and psychologically, thus, triggering a sense of denial (Holmstrom, 2017). Most sufferers often require counselling and time to heal by which time they decide to report the crime. Other casualties decides to take action upon discovering that they are pregnant or contracted some STI. By this time, most of the evidence involving the incidence are often inexistence or weak. With lack of concrete proof, most prosecutors often deem the accusation as obsolete if brought in front of a jury. Given that the victim is a 20 year old girl, it suffices to say that the cost of acquiring the services remains beyond her reach. For that reason, the remaining option is to seek option from non-governmental voluntary agencies or human rights organizations. Voluntary organizations are either funded by government or private institutions with the aim of protecting the rights of victims from marginalized society groups.

The Legal Right of Rape Victims against Perpetrators

            The legal criteria of rape in the US differs depending on the various legislative acts of individual states. However, the common federal definition of the crime is anal, oral, or vaginal penetration without the victim’s consent.  The penetrative act can be achieved using body organs or objects in a sexual manner. Given the ambiguity with earlier acts regarding the subject of rape, there have been several constitutional amendments to assist in the succinct description of the crime. These legal amendments extends the definition of rape from a non-consensual sexual to collaborate with other extenuating circumstances (Zinzow, Resnick, 2010). Given these legal amendments, the criteria for rape extends beyond consent and the relationship between the victim and the perpetrators. Thus, the victim in this case study can present her arguments according to the following statutes. First, she can argue that her cognitive judge was incapacitated by alcohol intake before the incident occurred. Her story may further be collaborated by the venue in which the alcoholic drinks were consumed. From a biochemical standpoint, alcohol intoxication is regulated by the Alcohol Dehydrogenases (ADH) enzymes, which are specific depending on individual’s genes. ADH action the body metabolism evokes varied reactions in the consumers. Some of the common behaviors with alcohol consumption include rage, mania, mood disorders, violence, depression, and other altered cognitive processes (Zinzow, Resnick et al, 2010). Given this scientific evidence, the victim can argue that her cognitive judgment was compromised by alcohol inhibition. Under Michigan State law, intoxicated individuals either by drugs or alcohol are incapable of consenting to sexual activity. In addition, the State of Massachusetts asserts that previous relationship cannot be used in law as proof of consent.  Besides alcohol, the victim can argue that she was coerced into the act with threats to the physical or emotional self.

Current Research and Prevalence of Rape Crimes

            Rape is a serious offence with great physical and mental challenges to the victim and to an extent the perpetrator. According to some medical studies, the researchers have associated the sex crime with mental disorders and sociological problems. For example, it is hypothesized that children from abusive families have difficulties in maintaining normal relationship. As they mature, these behavioral disturbed persons associated masculinity or femininity with aggressiveness. Consequently, these individuals develop sociopathic tendencies, and they use sex to demonstrate power rather than intimacy (Abbey, Zawacki, Buck, Clinton, & McAuslan, 2007). Social factors such as lack diminished ethos may also facilitate sexual assault. For example, increased internet penetration has eased the accessibility of pornographic content in the community. The prevalence of the sex industry in the society promotes the sexual assault. According to a study conducted by the Campus Sexual Assault Institute of Justice (2007), approximately 50% of sexual assault perpetrators and victims presented with mental problems. Alcohol and drug abuse was indicated as the leading precursor for engaging in indecent and risky sexual behavior (Krebs et al., 2007). While the report is inclusive of sexual assault cases from both genders, majority of report originated from women. 

            The common trend among rape victims who cannot afford private legal representation is to seek help from voluntary organizations.  However, the reports from this agencies indicate significant variance regarding the number of sexual violence that is reported in the country. Since these organizations receive funding according to the number of cases that they handle, there is a possibility that the figures are exaggerated. Nevertheless, the reports Patricia Tjaden and Nancy Thoennes, (2016), indicate that sexual violence has decreased in the country by 63% since 1995.

Yazidi survivor: ‘I was raped every day for six months’ – BBC News

The Option Available to the Victims in a Civil Court

            Civil courts are mainly involved in resolving conflicts between individuals with the aim of seeking compensation. Under the civil courts, conflicting parties can mutually agree to settle the matter outside the court. Thus, the rape victim can seek damages to recover the costs involved in litigation and the medical expenses. In addition, the court can instruct the alleged perpetrator to offer apology and cater for psychiatric counseling for the victim. Sexual assault often leaves the victims traumatized and eager for quick solution. A civil option reduces excess logistics and legal burden that are involved in criminal proceedings (Karmen, 2012). Prominent personalities usually engage the victims in a non-disclosure agreements.

            The main negative repercussion for a civil rape suit is that it does not provide closure to the victim. There are many reported cases of sexual victims who have attempted or committed suicide because of frustrations by the legal system. The emotional burden created by the incident does not immediately disappear despite the civil settlements. Some victims develop trust issues in relationships with their partners, friends, and even families. These are largely psychological issues, which require professional help and time for them to heal.


            The type of crime committed in this case study is rape because the victim was intoxicated and, thus, unable to provide sexual consent. While the perpetrator was also intoxicated, his actions contravened state statutes that prevents sex with intoxicated persons. There is a need for creating amendments that mandate prosecutors to investigate all the reported cases of sexual assault. The prosecutor violated the victims’ rights of representation and expression in a court of law (Karmen, 2012). Available constitutional statutes on rape are sufficient and, therefore, there is no need for additional changes. However, investigating agencies must be compelled to remain unbiased to the victim regardless of the level of evidence. Moreover, the victim must be guaranteed with the right of representation in a court of law. The prosecutor should not project the expected judgment and outcome of the decision before a jury. Although rape is a single event that may only last for a few minutes, the effects are long term. There are financial costs that are involved in seeking medical treatments and legal redress. Moreover, the psychological impact of the traumatic event can lead to a decrease in productivity both at work, home, or school.


Essay on Asthma

Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are most effective for suppressing persistent asthma due to their action on regulating proteins that cause inflammation by lowering them. Inhaled corticosteroids operate by reducing the number of inflammatory cells in the airways at the level of a cell. These cells include the dendritic, T cell, mast cells, and eosinophiles. Caraballo et al., (2016), states that the effects of corticosteroids. In long-term asthma management and treatment, ICS is effectively used. Beta2 agonists also known as bronchodilators provide quick symptom relief of severe asthma due to their rapid effect.

Triggers of Asthma

The bronchodilators are administered in high dosage for acute asthma, operate by binding to receptors and stimulate them to calm bronchial muscles. In respiratory emergencies, administration of β2-agonist inhalants is more effective in contrast to corticosteroids. According to Ahumada et al., (2015), allergens such as mold, dust, dander, and pollen that cause respiratory diseases are in our homes. This allergens trigger secretion of molecules called mediators from mast cells leading to allergic and inflammatory diseases like asthma.

As explained by Grossman and Porth (2014) in the event of a severe asthmatic attack, a patient may feel tired and breathless due to the energy used up in an attempt to breathe to compensate for the oxygen demand. This shortage of oxygen results from swollen airways’ linings caused by tightening of the chest muscles hence less oxygen distribution to the body.

As a result of hypercapnia, the body experiences an increase in carbon dioxide in the bloodstream because of hypoventilation. This triggers a respiratory response by the body in an attempt to expel the carbon dioxide and supply more oxygen to the bloodstream. Consequently, the patient might exhibit signs such as sleepiness, disorientation, irregular heartbeat, seizures among others.


Information on Physical Activity and Nutrition


Physical Activity and Nutrition are two of the main components that individuals need to consider when dealing with lifestyle-related conditions such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, stress, and obesity. High blood sugar, which is the main cause of diabetes, is one of the most important things that humans need to keep under control. Whenever individuals fail to take good care of their bodies, they become susceptible develop lifestyle-related conditions. People often lose focus when they have no idea of the appropriate food for their bodies or the suitable exercising programs. Due to poor nutritional habits and low physical activity, humans become prone to lifestyle diseases, a fact that they realize when it is too late to regain their health.

Researchers have established that humans can minimize the risks of developing lifestyle diseases by engaging in physical activities and consuming suitable diets. However, most people underestimate the benefits of physical activity and nutrition in preventing lifestyle diseases. For example, there is a general perception that a strict physical activity and nutrition regime represents an inconvenience and a disruption to normal living. Therefore, people tend to adopt a lifestyle that they regard as convenient and less disruptive. However, researchers continue to conduct studies to determine the impact of physical activity and nutrition on wellbeing of individuals.

Statement of the Problem

            Most people do not take the issue of physical exercises and healthy eating seriously, resulting in various lifestyle-related health problems globally. Research studies have indicated that nutrition is one of the most difficult aspects of regulating how good a person’s diet may be. In order to remain healthy and in good physical condition, individuals need to demonstrate high levels of discipline with regards to dieting and exercising physically. For example, it is important for individuals to adhere to exercises and diet regime in order to minimize risk of lifestyle diseases. Research studies indicate that individuals across all age groups are prone to poor health as a result of poor nutrition and lack of physical activity.

            Consequently, the issue of disregarding physical activities and nutrition has impacted negatively on people’s lives. Data from the World Health Organization indicates that a large proportion of the world proportion is suffering from lifestyle diseases due to lack of physical exercises. One key challenge is that individuals think that they can effortlessly switch their lifestyles to evade the adverse consequences of poor nutrition. Another challenge is that individuals often fail to demonstrate the necessary consistency whenever they embark on physical exercises and nutritional regimes. For example, problems such as craving are bound to appear from time to time, thus negating any progress that individuals make as far as nutrition is concerned.

Objectives of the Review

            Regular exercises and proper nutrition are some of the most significant determinants of health in humans. It is important for individuals to constantly take care of their bodies through regular physical activities and consumption of healthy and balanced diets. The aim of the review is to provide readers with knowledge regarding the importance of physical exercises and nutrition in ensuring a healthy living. The researcher has particularly targeted teenagers who face the greatest risk of experiencing health problems due to inactivity and poor nutritional choices. By expanding individuals’ views on nutrition and exercises, the research findings will impact positively on the individuals in particular and the community in general.

Research Questions

            Before embarking on the review, the researcher sought to answer several questions with regards to physical exercises and nutrition. First, the researcher identified the theory behind motivation of individuals to undertake physical exercises and eat healthy. The second research question related to the prevailing global trends with regards to the issue of physical activity and nutrition. Third, the researcher will sought to answer the question regarding health benefits that individuals derive from physical activity and nutrition.

Research Methods

            The researcher primarily used literature review to analyze the impact of physical activity and nutrition among individuals psychological, mental, and social wellbeing. According to Merriam and Tisdell (2009), the behavior of people is reflective of their attitude towards the outside world and the environment. Such behavior includes choice of nutrition, fitness regime, and attitudes towards wellness programs. The researcher confirmed this assertion by reviewing a multiplicity of findings from previous studies.

            The researcher further reviewed contrasting data from previous research studies on the topic. To ensure relevance, the researcher only reviewed literature that is no older than 20 years. In other words, literature older than 20 years does not form part of this study. For credibility purposes, only data from authoritative sources will be considered for review. Therefore, the researcher will consult credible sources such as scholarly journals, books, articles, and website resources from acclaimed authors or institutions. Website resources such as Wikipedia and blogs do not form part of this study.

            The review will also include the assessment of the impacts of physical activity and nutrition across various age brackets, including children, adolescents, and grownups. Such an extensive coverage is important because it represents extensive benefits to all members of society. For this review, the age definition of children will be 2-5 years while that of youths and adults will vary from 10-15, 15-24, 10-35, or 35 and older.  One of the main assumptions by the researcher is that age defines the boundaries of a group which manifests certain attitudes. To ensure inclusivity, the researcher did not consider factors such as cultural orientation of individuals or geography.

Data Analysis Plan

            Analysis of data is an important part of a research because it enables the scholar to acquire the necessary information in accordance to the research questions. The exclusion and exclusion criteria for this research is critical because it helps the researcher in the data analysis. In addition, the research approach enabled the researcher to identify materials that were useful and relevant for the study.

Literature Review

            While some individuals participate in regular physical activity for enjoyment and hobby purposes, others appear to do so in order to gain intrinsic and extrinsic rewards. Some of the rewards that individuals gain from physical activity include losing weight, becoming more physically attractive, and identifying themselves with particular groups. Previous studies on the subject of physical activity have indicated that individuals who exercise purely for enjoyment purposes rather than for physical rewards are more likely to adhere to the exercise programs. Since one of the main goals of health professionals is to promote continues active lifestyle in humans, there has been a proliferation of research relating to the issue of exercising in recent years. Researchers have been consistently been seeking to understand how to promote long-term behavioral change among individuals. Accordingly, scholars have advanced the theory of self-determination, which they have applied extensively to the understanding of exercise behavior and patterns in individuals.

            Despite the prevalence of numerous approaches to behavioral change, research studies have shown that long term engagement to physical exercises and nutrition is ineffective without a consistent motivational environment. In contrast, promoters of self-determination theory focus on the process through which individuals acquire motivation to establish and sustain long-term health-related behaviors. According to self-determination theorists, people need to possess several enabling attributes to enable them attain their psychological growth objectives. First, they need to possess multiple skills to enable them persevere the demanding physical activity programs. Second, they need to have certain connections and relatedness in order to experience a sense of belonging and attachment to each other. Third, individuals need to feel that they are in control of their own behaviors and goals. This means that individuals must be personally responsible for their physical exercise and nutrition programs and should therefore avoid any distractive external influence.

            According to Al-Hazzaa et al (2011), sedentary behaviors are associated with adverse health outcomes in individuals across all age groups. Television viewing and lack of physical activities among individual of all ages have contributed to the high prevalence of obesity and metabolic risks. In another study by Platat et al (2006), sedentary activities and poor nutritional choices by adolescents and teenagers were found to have negative impact on fitness and the ability of the body to sustain immunity against diseases. In addition, researchers have established that increase in television viewing is associated with a corresponding reduction of physical exertions. At the same time, individuals who watch television for long periods of time often make poor nutritional choices due to the tendency to consume junk and unhealthy food.

            Researchers have also focused on the adverse effects of lack of physical activity among youths. Results from previous systematic reviews indicate that sedentary behaviors — a key contributor to low physical activities — are associated with poor nutritional decisions such as low consumption of fruits and vegetables and high intake of fast foods, energy-dense snacks, and sugary drinks. Sedentary behavior is prevalent among youths as well as the elderly. As a result, individuals become physically inactive as a result of spending long hours in inactive state. Consequently, they become more prone to lifestyle and sedentary complications such as diabetes, obesity, high blood pressure, high stress levels, and depression. For example, a recent study on Saudi youths aged 10-19 revealed a positive correlation between consumption of sugary beverages and poor dietary habits. Collison et al (2010) further established that the prevalence of obesity among Saudi Arabian youths as a result of low physical activity and poor nutritional decisions was 12.2% and 27% for boys and girls respectively. Therefore, physical activity is crucial in the reduction of health problems such as obesity.

            The first three years of adolescents’ lives is a crucial stage in the life cycle of humans. This stage represents the period in which humans develop and form lifestyles. Researchers have established that adolescents have increased access to food from those available at home. At the same time, adolescents tend to increase their social interactions with their peers of similar age group. This leads to the development of specific dietary habits and physical activity patterns. Dietary and physical activity patterns become established during teenage years, which lead to a complete change in lifestyle. It is therefore important for health care professionals to develop a better understanding of the relationships between healthy habits and management of lifestyle-related diseases among young people. To achieve the health care provision objectives, professionals must identify ways to track individuals as they transition through various age brackets. Some health care professionals have even suggested that nutrition and physical activity should form the primary basis for the prevention of cardio-metabolic complications.

            Over the years, the U.S. has experienced significant lifestyle changes. Sedimentary lifestyles have traditionally been prevalent among the Americans, with studies indicating that 60% of American children and about 70% of adults do not engage in physical activity of sufficient intensity and frequency. In addition, food consumption patterns among Americans have changed drastically over the last two decades. With the advent of technology and the proliferation of fast-food outlets across multiple locations in the U.S., individuals can now access food conveniently almost at a moment’s notice. This consumption behavior has led to a high prevalence of lifestyle-related conditions such as diabetes and obesity among a significant percentage of the U.S. population. In addition, poor exercise programs is highly prevalent among the Americans, with studies revealing the American adults rarely spend time performing physical activities.

            Bailey, Cope and Pearce (2013), discuss the implication of engaging in sporting activities among children. The authors observed that physical activities among children are not only crucial, but also that they must be done in the right way. From their research in children coaching, the authors identified the role of coaches in ensuring that youths maintain the right attitudes and levels of concentration when they undertake the physical activities. However, there is always an inherent risk in engaging the services of professional coaches during the physical activity sessions. For example, Muir et al., (2011), argued that the coaching practices may not always be in line with developmental needs of the children. The results from such situations are inappropriate coaching, which fails to consider the individual learning needs of the children. Therefore, it is important for professional coaches to first determine the unique needs of each child in order to implement appropriate coaching regime.

            Casey et al., (2009), established that proper management of sport and recreational facilities can result in the desired positive outcomes in promoting physical social health. The researchers established that physical activities that meet the required guidelines impacts directly on important health outcomes such as low prevalence of cardiovascular complications. Therefore, it is important for healthcare practitioners to streamline physical activities programs in schools and medical institutions to help meet the goals of a healthy community. For example, sporting and recreational organizations that accept the principles of a health promotion program have an increased chance of attaining their desired health objectives. Sporting institutions that do not embrace any formal physical activity schedules may achieve mixed outcomes.

            From a nutritional perspective, Deci and Ryan (2008), established that individuals who adopt healthy eating habits and engage in consistent physical activities have higher chances of living lifestyles. In contrast, individuals who do not exercise often and also consume poor diets face significant risks of suffering from lifestyle-related conditions such as high blood pressure, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. In addition, the body tends to accumulate fat due to the high consumption of food high in carbohydrate contents and low in fibre. The situation becomes worse as a result of sufficient physical exertions to convert the excess fat into energy, resulting in obesity.  Similarly, Gleave and Cole-Hamilton (2012), identify the positive benefits of play and physical activities among children. Play and recreation are essential factors in promoting the development of motor and social skills among children under the age of 10. In contrast, children who rarely exercise physically experience stunted development in motor and social skills. In addition, physically-inactive children experience lower development in creativity compared to their physically-active counterparts.

            From the review of literature, it is evident that physical activity and nutrition are important attributes in the determination of healthy lifestyle in humans. According to the Center for Disease and Control (2008), individuals who exercise regularly and eat healthy food have high chances of leading a healthy lifestyle. Most of the findings on the effectiveness of physical activities and diet as intervention measures suggest the two activities results in positive long-term health benefits for individuals. Exercise intervention measures include aerobics, running, walking, and lifting weights. Conversely, researchers have established that sedentary behaviors lead to adverse impact on health.

            Individuals across all ages are prone to experiencing lifestyle-related diseases if they fail to exercise often and make healthy nutritional choices. Such behaviors often result in long-term health complications such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, high blood pressure, and obesity. Moreover, researchers have established that children who do not exercise regularly experience lower rates of cognitive development during their formative stage. The late adolescent stage is also a crucial period in individuals’ lives because it is at this time that they establish habits with regards to physical activities and nutrition choice. Consequently, adolescent who adopt harmful lifestyles have more chances to develop unhealthy health-related outcomes.

Discussion and Implications

  Individuals who exercise regularly and eat healthy food have a greater chance of living a healthy lifestyle. In addition, such individuals face low risks associated with lack of physical activity and poor dietary habits. Conversely, individuals who engage in harmful habits such as low physical activity and poor dietary choices face a high risk of lifestyle-related complications. Researchers have identified physical activity and nutrition as major contributors to a wide range of positive outcomes in physical and mental health. In addition, physical activity and nutrition affect cognitive and academic performance among children and students. Moreover, regular physical activities such as weight-lifting, walking, running, and aerobics result in reduction of conditions such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, depression, and weight gain.

            Researchers have also established that physically active children and adult who participate in team sports are less likely to engage in unhealthy lifestyle such as consumption of junk food. Such people are conscious about the efforts they have made, thus they are unlikely to reverse the gains they make from the strenuous physical exertions. Besides, there is a direct relationship between persistent physical activities and choice of nutrition. Scholars have also established that individuals gain more from supervised physical exercise programs. Conversely, uncoordinated physical exertions can be counterproductive.

Limitations of the Study

            The researcher primarily relies on literature from previous studies conducted on the topic. As a result, several limitations become apparent. First, the researcher does not obtain first-hand data that one can obtain when conducting a qualitative research. For example, there is not first-hand information from respondents, which make the research ineffective in terms of originality. Second, the information available in the past literature is subject to researchers’ bias. Therefore, the researcher has no way of detecting or circumventing the bias of the original scholar. Third, the researcher use past information, rather than present or recent data. In the current dynamic word, information is likely to be absolute due to the passage of time.


            The theory of self-determination is a crucial element in determining the attitudes of individuals towards physical activity and nutrition. As such, researchers have applied this theory extensively to understand the exercise patterns in individuals. The theory of self-determination is consistent with the findings that people who engage in physical activities and eat appropriate food have a high chance of leading healthy lifestyles. In addition, existing literature reveals that healthy lifestyle leads to a range of positive outcomes, including mental health, social well-being, and improved academic performance. Researchers have also established the link between regular physical activity and low prevalence of heart disease, diabetes, depression, and obesity. There are also positive correlations between physically-active individuals and unhealthy behaviors. For example, people who exercise regularly are less likely to consume unhealthy food than people who lead sedentary lives. Conversely, physical inactivity and sedentary lifestyle have a positive relationship with poor academic performance, poor health, and unsatisfactory social image.


Vanessa Perroncel Wants Wayne Bridge Back

Underwear model Vanessa Perroncel said in a GMTV interview that she would like to rekindle her love with ex Wayne Bridge and denied having an affair with John Terry.

The French beauty, 33 is apparently desperate to get Man City’s Wayne Bridge back. Despite having a four year old son together, Wayne has no plans to get back with her and a source said Vanessa is living in dream world. Wayne’s only concern is for their son and there is more chance of hell freezing over than getting back together. Vanessa insist she wasn’t paid ‘hush’ money by John Terry and that he was just there for her after her split from Bridge, it was all rumours and they were just friends. Publicity shy Vanessa features in this month’s FHM and has also been setting the record straight on GMTV. She is  certainly managing to make some money from her heartbreaking split and the fabricated affair and keeping her profile high. Desperate to get back with Wayne Bridge or desperate to remain in the spotlight?