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China is the most
populous country in the world with 1.4 billion people as at December 2017. This
figure is equivalent to 18.54% of the total global population. Over the years,
the country has transformed itself into a leading global economy. Currently, it
is the second largest economy in the world. Over the years, the Chinese government
has relocated sections of its population as part of the poverty-reduction
In 2001, the
government embarked on a nationwide programme of moving populations from
environmentally-fragile areas. The aim of the relocation was to accelerate the
process of poverty-eradication in poor regions. Similarly in 1984, the Chinese
government launched an extensive displacement programmes in the north of the
country as part of the measures to restore the ecosystem and eradicate poverty.
Additionally, the government regarded parts of the northern mountainous province
as crucial in terms of the country’s ecological and environmental wellbeing. The
World Bank supported the Chinese central government in the 1984 relocations as
part of its global environmental conservation drive.
Over the last three decades, authorities in the
Ningxia region of southern China have displaced about 700,000 peasants from
drought-prone areas. The peasants, who had lived in the Ningxia province since
historical times, faced imminent starvation as a result of recurrent draughts
and scarcity of water. Although the government aimed to increase the wellbeing
of the people through dislocations, research studies indicate that displacement
policies can harm families. For example, families who moved from Ningxia to Yinchuan
encountered challenges in accessing education, healthcare, and housing. Scholars
have argues that most of the displacement policies in China are part of the
government’s modernization policy. As a result, the government does not provide
the targeted populations with any other options
Utilitarian Theory– The utilitarianism theory would ensure that
the vaccine is administered to those at a higher chance of contracting the flu.
However, caregivers may fail to consider people with terminal illness. Probably, they would be the last people to receive
medication. Since it is vital to consider the greater good of the society, people
who work towards economic growth would be one of the priority groups.
The rights-based theory – The theory would use the first come first
served principle during the administration of the vaccine. Though the people
behind the queue are in a dire need for the vaccine, they would not be
Duty-based ethics– The theory would imply that those who are
already ill would be considered for treatment as compared to the healthy.
Justice-based– The theory would judge whether it is
morally right to immunize people against the flu. Particularly,
the theory examines the health implications of the process. For instance,
healthy people are likely to contract the flue during the immunization
Virtue-based theory– The theorist would suggest that the
healthcare givers should seek consent from the target population through a
thorough explanation of the significance of the vaccination.
Part2: Principle Solution
be an ideal solution to the problem, as it ensures that the care givers engage
the target population in the process of immunization. Both patient and healthy
people have the right to consent and explanation on the reason for vaccination.
Beneficence creates a room for consensus, where the interested parties come to
a mutual understanding of issues. This principle promotes wellness and protects
the community from any kind of harm, as health administrators determine the
importance of the vaccination to the intended population.
The American prison
system exists to keep citizens safe, punish criminals, and provide
rehabilitation services whenever necessary. Over the years, the government has
used prisons to serve more than just the above mentioned functions. The number
of Americans who end up in prisons has increased in the last five decades. These
changes were in part due to the creation of aggressive criminal laws passed by
Congress. Today, American prisons are overcrowded. Worse, it is the people of
color who make up a large portion of American convicts. Indeed, different ideas
regarding the reasons for the overcrowding of American prisons abound. Critics
of the prison system have cited the minimal benefits of keeping young men and
women in prison. They have mentioned the costs to the taxpayer, the effect of
jail terms on drug addicts, mentally ill, and families. At the same time,
researchers have proposed various methods of dealing with mass incarceration in
the country. Some have suggested a change of criminal laws, terms of sentences,
more police on the streets, and medical help for drug addicts. Despite the
different arguments presented by these researchers, they contend that mass
incarceration does not reduce cases of crime in the country.
is the Theme Discussed?
American prisons has triggered the debate over the effectiveness of mass
incarceration. In the past, the U.S government proposed long sentences for
criminals with the aim of reducing crime incidences in American communities. At
the time, individuals without high school diplomas, decent jobs, and low income
engaged in crime to provide for themselves and their families. Many of them
ended up in prison for selling or using illegal drugs. The government hoped
that such a move would help them tackle the drug problem in the country. However,
the arrest and imprisonment of young Americans contributed to an increase in
poverty in black communities. The men who were arrested were the sole providers
of their families meaning that these families had one source of income. Worse,
former convicts do not get employment opportunities easily because of their
criminal record. Therefore, some of them revert to their old habits of selling
drugs to keep up with their counterparts.
with Current Problems
incarceration is a practice that impedes poverty reduction efforts in the
country. Research demonstrates that the number of Americans living in poverty
would fall by over 20 percent if the government could reduce mass
incarceration. Researchers have proven that 60 percent of former inmates remain
unemployed one year after their release. Worse, many American adults have a
criminal record that may show up during a background check. Research
demonstrates that people without a criminal record gain employment even when
they are not qualified for the position. Additionally, keeping people locked up
in jails reduces their lifetime earnings, as well as intergenerational earnings.
Employers tend to limit the incomes of former inmates. Reduced incomes present
future problems for the incarcerated individuals along with their families.
Worse, serving a jail term presents roadblocks for the affected individuals
when seeking cash assistance from the government.
The activities of the
justice system in the country costs the taxpayer over 260 billion annually. The
costs of mass incarceration grew by 400 percent over the last 30 years. Hard
working Americans have to contribute towards the maintenance of these prisons. Many
men and women spend a large part of their adulthood in prisons. Upon their
release, these individuals have to deal with stigmatization, which reduces
their chances of gaining employment. The effects of incarceration of men and
women last a lifetime, especially for individuals from low income communities. The
crime wave of the 1980’s contributed to the introduction of punitive measures
in the judicial system. Tough crime policies in the 1980’s led to a
disproportionate impact for people from low income communities. Legislatures of
this era believed in punishing crime by either locking them up in prisons or
putting them through rehabilitation programs (Arvanites & Asher, 1995). The fear of crime and
unrest in the country contributed to the development of the mass incarceration
in the country. These actions had far reaching effects on the people affected.
Incarceration became the default setting rather than the last resort for the
judicial system at the time. The move affected individuals with low income and
those without high school diplomas.
Mass incarceration is a
practice that threatens the democracy in the American society. It is a system
of correction that drives poverty, racial injustice, and economic inequality
among the incarcerated and their families. American prisons hold twenty five
percent of the world’s prisoners. Most of these prisoners are black men who are
separated from their families for many years. Once locked in these correctional facilities,
black men cannot work and improve the living conditions of their families. Some
of them leave behind women with more than one child. These women have to work
long hours to earn enough money to pay rent, fees, and cater for other bills.
As a result, poverty remains a problem in many black families in the country.
Economic inequality becomes a reality when these black families cannot compete
with their white counterparts.
Leaders can eliminate
mass incarceration by adopting less punitive measures for low level offenses.
The judicial system resorts to incarceration as the first mode of punishment
for all types of offenses. Most state and federal prisoners are locked up for
non-violent crimes. For instance, many jail mates spend time in prison while
they await their sentencing. Others end up in prison for violating their
conditions of their parole or probation. Over 1.7 million people spend their
lives in prison without a public safety rationale. Indeed, punishment of crime
is paramount if the government is tackle social crime in American communities.
However, the severe punishment that criminals receive is not warranted.
Researchers have provided ample evidence showing that these measures of correcting
criminals are expensive and unnecessary. Instead, they recommend alternative
actions that reduce recidivism.
The government should
change criminal laws with the aim of removing prison as the only method of
correcting non-violent offenders. Some of the most appropriate punishments for
low level crimes include community service, probation, electronic monitoring,
and rehabilitation. The correctional facilities should apply these measures to
drug related crimes in the country. It is not efficient for the judicial system
to send drug offenders to prison for many years. The main problem in such cases
is the availability of drugs in the black communities meaning that they will
continue with the practice of selling drugs once released. Although the process
of changing criminal laws may take years, it is the only course of action that
will reduce the number of youth wasting away in American prisons.
addition and mental health problems require medical treatment and not time in
prison. Half of the people who end in American prisons suffer from mental
health issues or drug addiction. In fact, American cells hold more mentally ill
people than institutions for the mentally challenged. Prisons do not help such
people overcome their problems instead, incarceration worsens their condition.
Treatment will ensure that people with mental health problems or drug addiction
become useful members of society. They can recover, apply for employment opportunities,
and help their families where possible. At the same time, these individuals
require constant observation by probation officers to ensure that they recover
fully. In some cases, they made need to spend some time in prison depending on
the nature of the crime that they committed.
The act of deploying
additional police officers to the streets prevents people from committing
crime. The presence of more officers on the streets creates the perception that
there is more at stake for committing a crime. Mass incarceration has failed to
act as a deterrent to crime in society. Instead of reforming the lives of the
convicts, it contributes to the creation of recidivism. In the 1990’s the
levels of crime in the streets of New York reduced because of the presence of
police men and women.
The main reason behind
the prison boom was the desire of the government to control low income black
communities that were excluded from the economic boom of the industrial era.
The government did not want to tackle the problem of unemployment witnessed in
these black communities. People engaged in social crime to realize the American
Dream. Mass incarceration took root in the country because the government
failed to deal with gun violence, economic marginalization, and mental illness.
Instead, it created a judicial system where low level offenders wasted their
lives in prisons. The government contributed to the problem of mass
incarceration that is evident in society today.
The corrupt system
managed by corrupt politicians contributed to the development of the problem of
mass incarceration. Elected leaders in the political sphere have taken
advantage of prisons to mollify fears regarding crimes in the country. On top
of that, they have used these institutions to promote the resurgence of anti-civil
rights politics. Undoubtedly, the problem of mass incarceration is one that
benefits many people in the American society. Therefore, dealing with it
requires transforming the social issues that black people have dealt with for
many years. They are the ones affected the most by mass incarceration.
The process of writing
that the author utilized in the book contradicted my personal beliefs regarding
the debate over mass incarceration. Prior to reading the book, I had the
perception that sentencing criminals to prison was the best method of tackling
crime in communities. However, the author presented opposing views that helped
me rethink my previous stand on the topic of mass incarceration. For instance,
the writer presents the views of researchers who have proven that spending time
in prison does not reduce social crime. Instead, it increases the odds of these
criminals engaging in criminal activities upon their release. The researchers
provide evidence showing that the chances of former convicts gaining employment
are lower than those of law abiding citizens. Additionally, the author proves
that keeping offenders in prison for committing low level crimes is an
The author goes on to
provide the reader with alternative ways of dealing with offenders. It is not
necessary for all offenders to end up in prison. Rather, the government can
help them overcome their problems through other less expensive means. For
example, the correctional facilities can put criminals through community
service to help them become law abiding citizens. Community service helps these
individuals appreciate the importance of working hard for an income and the joy
that comes with earning a salary. Medical treatment is another remedy that
correctional facilities can adopt in helping people with drug related problems.
Sometimes, drug addicts need professional help to help them overcome the urge
to sell and use drugs.
The problem of drug
sale and use in American societies is not as simple as many perceive. Drug
dealers gain entry into the country through the Mexico-American border. The
government of Mexico has tried to deal with drug trafficking into U.S soil to
no avail. Many people in black communities have access to these drugs. Whenever
the police arrest these individuals, they do not help them reform. Instead,
they withdraw them from society for a certain period of time. After serving
their sentences, most of these convicts go back to selling drugs.
In conclusion, mass
incarceration is an effective method of dealing with crime in a country as
diverse as America. The act of sending all offenders to prison only results in
overcrowding in American jails. Instead of helping criminals reform their
lives, keeping them in prison only prevents them from committing new crimes and
deters would be offenders from engaging in criminal activities.
The 2018 presents a ray of hope for rape
victims following the accusation, arrest, and indictments of high profile
celebrities in the country. There are many prominent personalities in the
history of the United States who have been accused of statutory, matrimonial
rape, sexual assault, indecent harassment, and pedophilia but managed to escape
imprisonment. Moreover, those who were sentenced received minimum jail
sentences, which the victims regarded as lenient. However, the recent exposure
of Bill Cosby, Polanski, and Harvey Weinstein sexual misconducts have provoked
expansive conversations regarding sexual offence laws in the country. The
complications with sexual litigations emanates from historical events that
resulted to the creation of the Union. Slavery and colonization are irrefutably
the major proponent of sexual violence in the country. There are limited
literal texts that document this subject as an important aspect towards the
development of the American society. According to the recorded medical reports,
the nation experiences a sexual assault after 8 minutes. Moreover, only 0.6 %
of cases are reported to law and policy authorities. In view of these findings,
it is apparent that there is a need for increased awareness regarding the subject
(Holmstrom, 2017). The purpose of these sexual activism programs must be to
protect the rights and freedoms of both the victim and the alleged perpetrator
as enshrined in the supreme constitution. Given the historically low number of
indictments, many advocacy and help groups have emerged in the country to
assist victims in processing civil or criminal litigations.
case involves a 20 years old rape encounter with her ex-boyfriend following a
drinking spree. As a result of the circumstances encompassing the crime, the
public prosecutor rejects the litigation. The prosecutor’s conclusion is
probably informed by confounding environment of the alleged offence. Some of
the factors that complicates the incidence includes previous encounter between
the complainant and the perpetrator, the supposed condition in which the crime
occurred, and lack of sufficient evidence to indict the culprit (Michael Planty et al., 2016). Assumedly,
there must be witnesses from the drinking hole who witnessed the social conduct
of the couple. In addition to the effects of alcohol, the defendant’s attorney
would probably argue that sex between the two was consensual. Although the rape
crime happen, the burden of proof remains with the victim. On his part, the
accused can present a narrative demonstrating that there was a prior mutual
agreement between the two. In fact, He could even present a phone or other
physical evidence to illustrate how the two rekindled their relationship.
Furthermore, since both the victim and the charged were drunk, it would be
difficult to prove that the sexual urges only emanated from the man. From a
scientific perspective, alcohol inhibits cognitive reasoning and functions,
thus, promoting a carefree and reckless attitude. As the effects of alcohol
subsides, victims are usually engulfed with regrets, remorse, and even denial.
United States laws on rape confers the greatest liability and responsibilities
to the victim. For instance, after a rape incidence, the casualty is supposed
to report the matter immediately. The aim of this rule is to preserve evidence
that can be used for the prosecution of the perpetrators. Some of the proof of
crime includes the used condom, torn clothes, site of the incident, and
physical signs involved during the struggle. However, rape is among the
greatest atrocities to human dignity and wellbeing. Rape incidents affect the
victims physically and psychologically, thus, triggering a sense of denial
(Holmstrom, 2017). Most sufferers often require counselling and time to heal by
which time they decide to report the crime. Other casualties decides to take
action upon discovering that they are pregnant or contracted some STI. By this
time, most of the evidence involving the incidence are often inexistence or
weak. With lack of concrete proof, most prosecutors often deem the accusation
as obsolete if brought in front of a jury. Given that the victim is a 20 year
old girl, it suffices to say that the cost of acquiring the services remains
beyond her reach. For that reason, the remaining option is to seek option from
non-governmental voluntary agencies or human rights organizations. Voluntary
organizations are either funded by government or private institutions with the
aim of protecting the rights of victims from marginalized society groups.
The Legal Right of Rape Victims against
legal criteria of rape in the US differs depending on the various legislative
acts of individual states. However, the common federal definition of the crime
is anal, oral, or vaginal penetration without the victim’s consent. The penetrative act can be achieved using
body organs or objects in a sexual manner. Given the ambiguity with earlier
acts regarding the subject of rape, there have been several constitutional
amendments to assist in the succinct description of the crime. These legal
amendments extends the definition of rape from a non-consensual sexual to collaborate
with other extenuating circumstances (Zinzow,
Resnick, 2010). Given these legal amendments, the criteria for rape
extends beyond consent and the relationship between the victim and the
perpetrators. Thus, the victim in this case study can present her arguments
according to the following statutes. First, she can argue that her cognitive
judge was incapacitated by alcohol intake before the incident occurred. Her
story may further be collaborated by the venue in which the alcoholic drinks
were consumed. From a biochemical standpoint, alcohol intoxication is regulated
by the Alcohol Dehydrogenases (ADH) enzymes, which are specific depending on
individual’s genes. ADH action the body metabolism evokes varied reactions in
the consumers. Some of the common behaviors with alcohol consumption include
rage, mania, mood disorders, violence, depression, and other altered cognitive
processes (Zinzow, Resnick et al, 2010). Given
this scientific evidence, the victim can argue that her cognitive judgment was
compromised by alcohol inhibition. Under Michigan State law, intoxicated individuals
either by drugs or alcohol are incapable of consenting to sexual activity. In
addition, the State of Massachusetts asserts that previous relationship cannot
be used in law as proof of consent.
Besides alcohol, the victim can argue that she was coerced into the act
with threats to the physical or emotional self.
Current Research and Prevalence of Rape
is a serious offence with great physical and mental challenges to the victim
and to an extent the perpetrator. According to some medical studies, the
researchers have associated the sex crime with mental disorders and
sociological problems. For example, it is hypothesized that children from
abusive families have difficulties in maintaining normal relationship. As they
mature, these behavioral disturbed persons associated masculinity or femininity
with aggressiveness. Consequently, these individuals develop sociopathic
tendencies, and they use sex to demonstrate power rather than intimacy (Abbey, Zawacki, Buck, Clinton, & McAuslan, 2007).
Social factors such as lack diminished ethos may also facilitate sexual
assault. For example, increased internet penetration has eased the
accessibility of pornographic content in the community. The prevalence of the
sex industry in the society promotes the sexual assault. According to a study conducted
by the Campus Sexual Assault Institute of Justice (2007), approximately 50% of
sexual assault perpetrators and victims presented with mental problems. Alcohol
and drug abuse was indicated as the leading precursor for engaging in indecent
and risky sexual behavior (Krebs et al., 2007).
While the report is inclusive of sexual assault cases from both genders,
majority of report originated from women.
common trend among rape victims who cannot afford private legal representation
is to seek help from voluntary organizations. However, the reports from this agencies
indicate significant variance regarding the number of sexual violence that is
reported in the country. Since these organizations receive funding according to
the number of cases that they handle, there is a possibility that the figures
are exaggerated. Nevertheless, the reports Patricia
Tjaden and Nancy Thoennes, (2016), indicate that sexual violence has
decreased in the country by 63% since 1995.
The Option Available to the Victims in a
Civil courts are mainly involved in
resolving conflicts between individuals with the aim of seeking compensation.
Under the civil courts, conflicting parties can mutually agree to settle the
matter outside the court. Thus, the rape victim can seek damages to recover the
costs involved in litigation and the medical expenses. In addition, the court
can instruct the alleged perpetrator to offer apology and cater for psychiatric
counseling for the victim. Sexual assault often leaves the victims traumatized
and eager for quick solution. A civil option reduces excess logistics and legal
burden that are involved in criminal proceedings (Karmen, 2012). Prominent
personalities usually engage the victims in a non-disclosure agreements.
The main negative repercussion for a civil
rape suit is that it does not provide closure to the victim. There are many
reported cases of sexual victims who have attempted or committed suicide
because of frustrations by the legal system. The emotional burden created by
the incident does not immediately disappear despite the civil settlements. Some
victims develop trust issues in relationships with their partners, friends, and
even families. These are largely psychological issues, which require professional
help and time for them to heal.
The type of crime committed in this case
study is rape because the victim was intoxicated and, thus, unable to provide
sexual consent. While the perpetrator was also intoxicated, his actions
contravened state statutes that prevents sex with intoxicated persons. There is
a need for creating amendments that mandate prosecutors to investigate all the
reported cases of sexual assault. The prosecutor violated the victims’ rights
of representation and expression in a court of law (Karmen, 2012). Available
constitutional statutes on rape are sufficient and, therefore, there is no need
for additional changes. However, investigating agencies must be compelled to
remain unbiased to the victim regardless of the level of evidence. Moreover,
the victim must be guaranteed with the right of representation in a court of
law. The prosecutor should not project the expected judgment and outcome of the
decision before a jury. Although rape is a single event that may only last for
a few minutes, the effects are long term. There are financial costs that are
involved in seeking medical treatments and legal redress. Moreover, the
psychological impact of the traumatic event can lead to a decrease in
productivity both at work, home, or school.
Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are
most effective for suppressing persistent asthma due to their action on
regulating proteins that cause inflammation by lowering them. Inhaled corticosteroids operate by reducing
the number of inflammatory cells in the airways at the level of a
cell. These cells include the dendritic, T cell, mast cells, and eosinophiles. Caraballo et al., (2016), states that the effects
of corticosteroids. In long-term asthma management and treatment, ICS is effectively
used. Beta2 agonists also known as bronchodilators provide quick symptom relief of
severe asthma due to their rapid effect.
are administered in high dosage for acute asthma, operate by binding to
receptors and stimulate them to calm bronchial muscles. In respiratory emergencies,
administration of β2-agonist inhalants is more effective in contrast to
corticosteroids. According to Ahumada et al., (2015), allergens such as mold, dust,
dander, and pollen that cause respiratory diseases are in our homes. This
allergens trigger secretion of molecules called mediators from
mast cells leading to allergic and inflammatory diseases like asthma.
As explained by Grossman and Porth
(2014) in the event of a severe asthmatic attack, a patient may feel tired and
breathless due to the energy used up in an attempt to breathe to compensate for
the oxygen demand. This shortage of oxygen results from swollen airways’
linings caused by tightening of the chest muscles hence less oxygen
distribution to the body.
As a result of
hypercapnia, the body experiences an increase in carbon dioxide in the
bloodstream because of hypoventilation. This triggers a respiratory response by
the body in an attempt to expel the carbon dioxide and supply more oxygen to
the bloodstream. Consequently, the patient might exhibit signs such as
sleepiness, disorientation, irregular heartbeat, seizures among others.
Physical Activity and
Nutrition are two of the main components that individuals need to consider when
dealing with lifestyle-related conditions such as diabetes mellitus,
cardiovascular diseases, stress, and obesity. High blood sugar, which is the
main cause of diabetes, is one of the most important things that humans need to
keep under control. Whenever individuals fail to take good care of their bodies,
they become susceptible develop lifestyle-related conditions. People often lose
focus when they have no idea of the appropriate food for their bodies or the
suitable exercising programs. Due to poor nutritional habits and low physical
activity, humans become prone to lifestyle diseases, a fact that they realize
when it is too late to regain their health.
Researchers have established
that humans can minimize the risks of developing lifestyle diseases by engaging
in physical activities and consuming suitable diets. However, most people
underestimate the benefits of physical activity and nutrition in preventing lifestyle
diseases. For example, there is a general perception that a strict physical
activity and nutrition regime represents an inconvenience and a disruption to
normal living. Therefore, people tend to adopt a lifestyle that they regard as
convenient and less disruptive. However, researchers continue to conduct
studies to determine the impact of physical activity and nutrition on wellbeing
Statement of the Problem
Most people do not take the issue of physical
exercises and healthy eating seriously, resulting in various lifestyle-related
health problems globally. Research studies have indicated that nutrition is one
of the most difficult aspects of regulating how good a person’s diet may be. In
order to remain healthy and in good physical condition, individuals need to
demonstrate high levels of discipline with regards to dieting and exercising physically.
For example, it is important for individuals to adhere to exercises and diet
regime in order to minimize risk of lifestyle diseases. Research studies indicate
that individuals across all age groups are prone to poor health as a result of
poor nutrition and lack of physical activity.
the issue of disregarding physical activities and nutrition has impacted
negatively on people’s lives. Data from the World Health Organization indicates
that a large proportion of the world proportion is suffering from lifestyle
diseases due to lack of physical exercises. One key challenge is that individuals
think that they can effortlessly switch their lifestyles to evade the adverse
consequences of poor nutrition. Another challenge is that individuals often
fail to demonstrate the necessary consistency whenever they embark on physical
exercises and nutritional regimes. For example, problems such as craving are bound
to appear from time to time, thus negating any progress that individuals make
as far as nutrition is concerned.
Objectives of the Review
Regular exercises and proper nutrition are some of the
most significant determinants of health in humans. It is important for
individuals to constantly take care of their bodies through regular physical
activities and consumption of healthy and balanced diets. The aim of the review
is to provide readers with knowledge regarding the importance of physical
exercises and nutrition in ensuring a healthy living. The researcher has
particularly targeted teenagers who face the greatest risk of experiencing
health problems due to inactivity and poor nutritional choices. By expanding
individuals’ views on nutrition and exercises, the research findings will
impact positively on the individuals in particular and the community in
embarking on the review, the researcher sought to answer several questions with
regards to physical exercises and nutrition. First, the researcher identified the
theory behind motivation of individuals to undertake physical exercises and eat
healthy. The second research question related to the prevailing global trends
with regards to the issue of physical activity and nutrition. Third, the
researcher will sought to answer the question regarding health benefits that
individuals derive from physical activity and nutrition.
The researcher primarily used literature review to
analyze the impact of physical activity and nutrition among individuals
psychological, mental, and social wellbeing. According to Merriam and Tisdell
(2009), the behavior of people is reflective of their attitude towards the
outside world and the environment. Such behavior includes choice of nutrition,
fitness regime, and attitudes towards wellness programs. The researcher
confirmed this assertion by reviewing a multiplicity of findings from previous
The researcher further reviewed contrasting data from
previous research studies on the topic. To ensure relevance, the researcher only
reviewed literature that is no older than 20 years. In other words, literature older
than 20 years does not form part of this study. For credibility purposes, only
data from authoritative sources will be considered for review. Therefore, the
researcher will consult credible sources such as scholarly journals, books,
articles, and website resources from acclaimed authors or institutions. Website
resources such as Wikipedia and blogs do not form part of this study.
review will also include the assessment of the impacts of physical activity and
nutrition across various age brackets, including children, adolescents, and
grownups. Such an extensive coverage is important because it represents
extensive benefits to all members of society. For this review, the age
definition of children will be 2-5 years while that of youths and adults will
vary from 10-15, 15-24, 10-35, or 35 and older.
One of the main assumptions by the researcher is that age defines the
boundaries of a group which manifests certain attitudes. To ensure inclusivity,
the researcher did not consider factors such as cultural orientation of
individuals or geography.
Data Analysis Plan
Analysis of data is an important part of a research
because it enables the scholar to acquire the necessary information in
accordance to the research questions. The exclusion and exclusion criteria for
this research is critical because it helps the researcher in the data analysis.
In addition, the research approach enabled the researcher to identify materials
that were useful and relevant for the study.
some individuals participate in regular physical activity for enjoyment and
hobby purposes, others appear to do so in order to gain intrinsic and extrinsic
rewards. Some of the rewards that individuals gain from physical activity
include losing weight, becoming more physically attractive, and identifying
themselves with particular groups. Previous studies on the subject of physical
activity have indicated that individuals who exercise purely for enjoyment
purposes rather than for physical rewards are more likely to adhere to the
exercise programs. Since one of the main goals of health professionals is to
promote continues active lifestyle in humans, there has been a proliferation of
research relating to the issue of exercising in recent years. Researchers have
been consistently been seeking to understand how to promote long-term
behavioral change among individuals. Accordingly, scholars have advanced the
theory of self-determination, which they have applied extensively to the
understanding of exercise behavior and patterns in individuals.
the prevalence of numerous approaches to behavioral change, research studies
have shown that long term engagement to physical exercises and nutrition is
ineffective without a consistent motivational environment. In contrast,
promoters of self-determination theory focus on the process through which
individuals acquire motivation to establish and sustain long-term
health-related behaviors. According to self-determination theorists, people
need to possess several enabling attributes to enable them attain their
psychological growth objectives. First, they need to possess multiple skills to
enable them persevere the demanding physical activity programs. Second, they
need to have certain connections and relatedness in order to experience a sense
of belonging and attachment to each other. Third, individuals need to feel that
they are in control of their own behaviors and goals. This means that
individuals must be personally responsible for their physical exercise and
nutrition programs and should therefore avoid any distractive external
to Al-Hazzaa et al (2011), sedentary behaviors are associated
with adverse health outcomes in individuals across all age groups. Television
viewing and lack of physical activities among individual of all ages have
contributed to the high prevalence of obesity and metabolic risks. In another
study by Platat et al (2006), sedentary activities and poor nutritional choices
by adolescents and teenagers were found to have negative impact on fitness and
the ability of the body to sustain immunity against diseases. In addition,
researchers have established that increase in television viewing is associated
with a corresponding reduction of physical exertions. At the same time,
individuals who watch television for long periods of time often make poor
nutritional choices due to the tendency to consume junk and unhealthy food.
Researchers have also focused on the
adverse effects of lack of physical activity among youths. Results from
previous systematic reviews indicate that sedentary behaviors — a key
contributor to low physical activities — are associated with poor nutritional
decisions such as low consumption of fruits and vegetables and high intake of
fast foods, energy-dense snacks, and sugary drinks. Sedentary behavior is
prevalent among youths as well as the elderly. As a result, individuals become
physically inactive as a result of spending long hours in inactive state.
Consequently, they become more prone to lifestyle and sedentary complications
such as diabetes, obesity, high blood pressure, high stress levels, and
depression. For example, a recent study on Saudi youths aged 10-19 revealed a
positive correlation between consumption of sugary beverages and poor dietary
habits. Collison et al (2010) further established that the prevalence of
obesity among Saudi Arabian youths as a result of low physical activity and
poor nutritional decisions was 12.2% and 27% for boys and girls respectively.
Therefore, physical activity is crucial in the reduction of health problems
such as obesity.
The first three years of
adolescents’ lives is a crucial stage in the life cycle of humans. This stage
represents the period in which humans develop and form lifestyles. Researchers
have established that adolescents have increased access to food from those
available at home. At the same time, adolescents tend to increase their social
interactions with their peers of similar age group. This leads to the
development of specific dietary habits and physical activity patterns. Dietary
and physical activity patterns become established during teenage years, which
lead to a complete change in lifestyle. It is therefore important for health
care professionals to develop a better understanding of the relationships
between healthy habits and management of lifestyle-related diseases among young
people. To achieve the health care provision objectives, professionals must
identify ways to track individuals as they transition through various age
brackets. Some health care professionals have even suggested that nutrition and
physical activity should form the primary basis for the prevention of cardio-metabolic
Over the years, the U.S. has experienced significant
lifestyle changes. Sedimentary lifestyles have traditionally been prevalent
among the Americans, with studies indicating that 60% of American children and
about 70% of adults do not engage in physical activity of sufficient intensity
and frequency. In addition, food consumption patterns among Americans have
changed drastically over the last two decades. With the advent of technology
and the proliferation of fast-food outlets across multiple locations in the
U.S., individuals can now access food conveniently almost at a moment’s notice.
This consumption behavior has led to a high prevalence of lifestyle-related
conditions such as diabetes and obesity among a significant percentage of the
U.S. population. In addition, poor exercise programs is highly prevalent among
the Americans, with studies revealing the American adults rarely spend time
performing physical activities.
Cope and Pearce (2013), discuss the implication of engaging in sporting
activities among children. The authors observed that physical activities among
children are not only crucial, but also that they must be done in the right
way. From their research in children coaching, the authors identified the role
of coaches in ensuring that youths maintain the right attitudes and levels of
concentration when they undertake the physical activities. However, there is
always an inherent risk in engaging the services of professional coaches during
the physical activity sessions. For example, Muir et al., (2011), argued that
the coaching practices may not always be in line with developmental needs of
the children. The results from such situations are inappropriate coaching,
which fails to consider the individual learning needs of the children.
Therefore, it is important for professional coaches to first determine the
unique needs of each child in order to implement appropriate coaching regime.
et al., (2009), established that proper management of sport and recreational
facilities can result in the desired positive outcomes in promoting physical
social health. The researchers established that physical activities that meet
the required guidelines impacts directly on important health outcomes such as
low prevalence of cardiovascular complications. Therefore, it is important for
healthcare practitioners to streamline physical activities programs in schools
and medical institutions to help meet the goals of a healthy community. For
example, sporting and recreational organizations that accept the principles of
a health promotion program have an increased chance of attaining their desired
health objectives. Sporting institutions that do not embrace any formal
physical activity schedules may achieve mixed outcomes.
a nutritional perspective, Deci and Ryan (2008), established that individuals
who adopt healthy eating habits and engage in consistent physical activities
have higher chances of living lifestyles. In contrast, individuals who do not
exercise often and also consume poor diets face significant risks of suffering
from lifestyle-related conditions such as high blood pressure, diabetes, and
cardiovascular diseases. In addition, the body tends to accumulate fat due to
the high consumption of food high in carbohydrate contents and low in fibre.
The situation becomes worse as a result of sufficient physical exertions to
convert the excess fat into energy, resulting in obesity. Similarly, Gleave and Cole-Hamilton (2012),
identify the positive benefits of play and physical activities among children.
Play and recreation are essential factors in promoting the development of motor
and social skills among children under the age of 10. In contrast, children who
rarely exercise physically experience stunted development in motor and social
skills. In addition, physically-inactive children experience lower development
in creativity compared to their physically-active counterparts.
From the review of literature, it is evident that
physical activity and nutrition are important attributes in the determination
of healthy lifestyle in humans. According to the Center for Disease and Control
(2008), individuals who exercise regularly and eat healthy food have high
chances of leading a healthy lifestyle. Most of the findings on the
effectiveness of physical activities and diet as intervention measures suggest
the two activities results in positive long-term health benefits for
individuals. Exercise intervention measures include aerobics, running, walking,
and lifting weights. Conversely, researchers have established that sedentary
behaviors lead to adverse impact on health.
across all ages are prone to experiencing lifestyle-related diseases if they
fail to exercise often and make healthy nutritional choices. Such behaviors
often result in long-term health complications such as diabetes, cardiovascular
diseases, high blood pressure, and obesity. Moreover, researchers have
established that children who do not exercise regularly experience lower rates
of cognitive development during their formative stage. The late adolescent
stage is also a crucial period in individuals’ lives because it is at this time
that they establish habits with regards to physical activities and nutrition
choice. Consequently, adolescent who adopt harmful lifestyles have more chances
to develop unhealthy health-related outcomes.
Discussion and Implications
Individuals who exercise regularly and eat healthy
food have a greater chance of living a healthy lifestyle. In addition, such
individuals face low risks associated with lack of physical activity and poor
dietary habits. Conversely, individuals who engage in harmful habits such as
low physical activity and poor dietary choices face a high risk of
lifestyle-related complications. Researchers have identified physical activity
and nutrition as major contributors to a wide range of positive outcomes in
physical and mental health. In addition, physical activity and nutrition affect
cognitive and academic performance among children and students. Moreover,
regular physical activities such as weight-lifting, walking, running, and aerobics
result in reduction of conditions such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes,
depression, and weight gain.
Researchers have also established that physically active
children and adult who participate in team sports are less likely to engage in
unhealthy lifestyle such as consumption of junk food. Such people are conscious
about the efforts they have made, thus they are unlikely to reverse the gains
they make from the strenuous physical exertions. Besides, there is a direct
relationship between persistent physical activities and choice of nutrition.
Scholars have also established that individuals gain more from supervised
physical exercise programs. Conversely, uncoordinated physical exertions can be
Limitations of the Study
The researcher primarily relies on literature from
previous studies conducted on the topic. As a result, several limitations
become apparent. First, the researcher does not obtain first-hand data that one
can obtain when conducting a qualitative research. For example, there is not
first-hand information from respondents, which make the research ineffective in
terms of originality. Second, the information available in the past literature
is subject to researchers’ bias. Therefore, the researcher has no way of
detecting or circumventing the bias of the original scholar. Third, the
researcher use past information, rather than present or recent data. In the
current dynamic word, information is likely to be absolute due to the passage
The theory of self-determination is a crucial element
in determining the attitudes of individuals towards physical activity and
nutrition. As such, researchers have applied this theory extensively to
understand the exercise patterns in individuals. The theory of
self-determination is consistent with the findings that people who engage in
physical activities and eat appropriate food have a high chance of leading
healthy lifestyles. In addition, existing literature reveals that healthy
lifestyle leads to a range of positive outcomes, including mental health,
social well-being, and improved academic performance. Researchers have also
established the link between regular physical activity and low prevalence of
heart disease, diabetes, depression, and obesity. There are also positive
correlations between physically-active individuals and unhealthy behaviors. For
example, people who exercise regularly are less likely to consume unhealthy
food than people who lead sedentary lives. Conversely, physical inactivity and
sedentary lifestyle have a positive relationship with poor academic
performance, poor health, and unsatisfactory social image.
Underwear model Vanessa Perroncel said in a GMTV interview that she would like to rekindle her love with ex Wayne Bridge and denied having an affair with John Terry.
The French beauty, 33 is apparently desperate to get Man City’s Wayne Bridge back. Despite having a four year old son together, Wayne has no plans to get back with her and a source said Vanessa is living in dream world. Wayne’s only concern is for their son and there is more chance of hell freezing over than getting back together. Vanessa insist she wasn’t paid ‘hush’ money by John Terry and that he was just there for her after her split from Bridge, it was all rumours and they were just friends. Publicity shy Vanessa features in this month’s FHM and has also been setting the record straight on GMTV. She is certainly managing to make some money from her heartbreaking split and the fabricated affair and keeping her profile high. Desperate to get back with Wayne Bridge or desperate to remain in the spotlight?