Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are most effective for suppressing persistent asthma due to their action on regulating proteins that cause inflammation by lowering them. Inhaled corticosteroids operate by reducing the number of inflammatory cells in the airways at the level of a cell. These cells include the dendritic, T cell, mast cells, and eosinophiles. Caraballo et al., (2016), states that the effects of corticosteroids. In long-term asthma management and treatment, ICS is effectively used. Beta2 agonists also known as bronchodilators provide quick symptom relief of severe asthma due to their rapid effect.
The bronchodilators are administered in high dosage for acute asthma, operate by binding to receptors and stimulate them to calm bronchial muscles. In respiratory emergencies, administration of β2-agonist inhalants is more effective in contrast to corticosteroids. According to Ahumada et al., (2015), allergens such as mold, dust, dander, and pollen that cause respiratory diseases are in our homes. This allergens trigger secretion of molecules called mediators from mast cells leading to allergic and inflammatory diseases like asthma.
As explained by Grossman and Porth (2014) in the event of a severe asthmatic attack, a patient may feel tired and breathless due to the energy used up in an attempt to breathe to compensate for the oxygen demand. This shortage of oxygen results from swollen airways’ linings caused by tightening of the chest muscles hence less oxygen distribution to the body.
As a result of hypercapnia, the body experiences an increase in carbon dioxide in the bloodstream because of hypoventilation. This triggers a respiratory response by the body in an attempt to expel the carbon dioxide and supply more oxygen to the bloodstream. Consequently, the patient might exhibit signs such as sleepiness, disorientation, irregular heartbeat, seizures among others.